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General information

The Kyrgyz Republic is located in Central Asia and has an area of 199 thousand square kilometres, or 77,540 square miles. This landlocked nation stretches 900 km east to west and 410 km north to south. The Kyrgyz Republic is a mountainous country with 94.2% of its territory located 1,000 metres and 40.8% located 3,000 metres above sea. The average height above sea level is 2,750 metres, the highest point is 7,439 metres, and the lowest point is 401 metres1. The Kyrgyz Republic borders Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the south-west, Tajikistan to the south, and China to the east and south-east2. The climate is continental; air temperature varies from -40°С in the winter to +40°С in the summer. The landscape includes all natural zones common for the northern hemisphere, except the tropics. The republic is one of the 20 countries with the richest water resources in the world. By its administrative and territorial system the Kyrgyz Republic belongs to unitary states and consists of 7 oblasts (Regions), (Chui, Issyk-Kul, Talas, Naryn, Jalalabat, Osh and Batken) and 2 cities of national status (Bishkek and Osh). The capital of the Kyrgyz Republic is Bishkek.

At the beginning of 2015 the number of permanent population of the Kyrgyz Republic was 5,895,062 people (men – 2,916,971, women – 2,978,091)5. Where, the number of urban population was 1,986,740 people (men – 941,522, women – 1,045,218), and the number of rural population was 3,908,322 people (men – 1,975,449, women – 1,932,873). There are about 90 different nationalities in the Kyrgyz Republic. At the beginning of 2015, native population, the Kyrgyz, accounted for 72.8%,the Uzbeks – 14.5 %,the Russians – 6.2 %, the Ukrainians – 0.2%, the Germans - 0.1%, the Tatars – 0.5%, the Kazakhs – 0.6, the Armenians – 0.0 %, the Tajiks – 0.9%, the Azerbaijanis – 0.4%, the Chechens – 0.0%, the Belarusians – 0.0%, the Georgians – 0.0%, the Lithuanians – 0.0%, the Moldavians – 0.0%, the Latvians – 0.0%, the Turkmen – 0.1%, the Estonians – 0.0%, the Jews – 0.0%, the Uighurs – 0.9%, the Dungans – 1.1%, the Koreans – 0.3%, the Turks – 0.7%, other nationalities – 0.7%.

The number of population by age is as follows:

• 0 to 4 years –752,957

• 5 to 9 – 590,172;

• 10 to 14 – 505,039;

• 15 to 19 – 527,422;

• 20 to 24 – 578,214;

• 25 to 29 – 565,211;

• 30 to 34 – 440,277;

• 35 to 39 – 364,783;

• 40 to 44 – 332,158;

• 45 to 49 – 306,723;

• 50 to 54 – 293,620;

• 55 to 59 – 229,842;

• 60 to 64 – 153,090;

• 65 to 69 – 91,627;

• 70 to 74 – 50,846;

• 75 to 79 – 59,453;

• 80 to 84 – 29,433;

• 85 to 89 – 17,996;

• 90 to 94 – 4,668;

• 95 to 99 – 1,227;

• 100 and more years of age – 304.6

The national language of the Kyrgyz Republic is Kyrgyz, while the official language is Russian. Both languages are being used on equal terms and are employed for administrative purposes; however, under the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic7, the Kyrgyz version of a document is considered to be its original version. In its official relations with foreign nations (receptions, meetings, development and ratification of documents) the Kyrgyz Republic uses the national language, while in relations with the CIS countries it also uses the official language. 

The permanent population of the Kyrgyz Republic exceeds 5.309 million people. The population density is 26 people per 1 square km. About 90 nationalities live in the Kyrgyz Republic. Aboriginal people - Kyrgyz make up 72%, Uzbeks-15%, Russians-9%.

Major part of the population is concentrated in the foothill valleys - Chui valley on the border with Kazakhstan and the Fergana Valley on the border with Uzbekistan, Naryn and Talas valleys, as well as in the Issyk-Kul hollow.

Kyrgyz language is a state language of the Kyrgyz Republic; it belongs to the Turkic languages (kypchak group of languages). Writing system prior to 1928 in the USSR and up to the present time in China is based on Arabic alphabet. The Latin alphabet was used from 1928 to 1940s. The modern writing system is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. It is the mother tongue of the Russian population of Kyrgyzstan who traditionally live in the North of the country, as well as in the major cities, primarily in Bishkek. Traditionally, Russian language acts as the main language of communication for the entire non-Russian population of Kyrgyzstan, primarily for Kyrgyz. It received a wide circulation within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan since the mid-19th century, when the Kyrgyz lands became part of the Russian Empire and Russian language became the language of international communication. After 1989, it retains the status of a language of international communication. The country also maintains a vertical of education in Russian language.