The Kyrgyz Republic is located in Central Asia and occupies 199 thousand square km (or 77.540 square miles (85-th place in the world)). The territory of the Republic stretches from West to East for 900 km, from North to South for 410 km.
The Kyrgyz Republic is a mountainous country, 94.2% of its territory lies above 1000 m above sea level, and 40.8% is above 3000 m. The average altitude above sea level is 2750 m, maximum altitude - 7439 m, minimum altitude - 401 m. The Kyrgyz Republic borders on the North with Kazakhstan, on the South-West - with Uzbekistan, on the South - with Tajikistan, and on the East and South-East - with China.
The climate is continental; air temperature ranges from -40°C in winter to +40°C in summer. All natural areas, which are typical of the northern hemisphere, except tropical, can be met on the territory of the Republic. The country is on the list of the top 20 countries rich for the fresh water.
Administrative-territorial structure of the Kyrgyz Republic is a unitary republic consisting of 7 regions (Chui, Issyk-Kul, Talas, Naryn, Jalal-Abad, Osh and Batken regions) and 2 cities of republican status (Bishkek and Osh). The capital is Bishkek.
The permanent population of the Kyrgyz Republic exceeds 5.309 million people. The population density is 26 people per 1 square km. About 90 nationalities live in the Kyrgyz Republic. Aboriginal people - Kyrgyz make up 72%, Uzbeks-15%, Russians-9%.
Major part of the population is concentrated in the foothill valleys - Chui valley on the border with Kazakhstan and the Fergana Valley on the border with Uzbekistan, Naryn and Talas valleys, as well as in the Issyk-Kul hollow.
Kyrgyz language is a state language of the Kyrgyz Republic; it belongs to the Turkic languages (kypchak group of languages). Writing system prior to 1928 in the USSR and up to the present time in China is based on Arabic alphabet. The Latin alphabet was used from 1928 to 1940s. The modern writing system is based on the Cyrillic alphabet. It is the mother tongue of the Russian population of Kyrgyzstan who traditionally live in the North of the country, as well as in the major cities, primarily in Bishkek. Traditionally, Russian language acts as the main language of communication for the entire non-Russian population of Kyrgyzstan, primarily for Kyrgyz. It received a wide circulation within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan since the mid-19th century, when the Kyrgyz lands became part of the Russian Empire and Russian language became the language of international communication. After 1989, it retains the status of a language of international communication. The country also maintains a vertical of education in Russian language.